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The First Breeding Bird Atlas of Vermont (1976-1981)

Latest version published by Vermont Center for Ecostudies on Dec 30, 2019 Vermont Center for Ecostudies

The Vermont Breeding Bird Atlas (VBBA) is one of the most comprehensive bird surveys in Vermont. It is completed once every 25 years during a 5-year period. Data collection for the first and second atlases were in 1976-1981 and in 2003-2007, respectively. The main goal of the first atlas was to document the spatial distribution of each bird species at a broad geographical scale.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 24,218 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 24,218 records in English (859 KB) - Update frequency: not planned
Metadata as an EML file download in English (12 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (13 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Renfrew R, McFarland K (2019): The First Breeding Bird Atlas of Vermont (1976-1981). v1.0. Vermont Center for Ecostudies. Dataset/Occurrence. http://ipt.vtecostudies.org/ipt-2.3.5/resource?r=vtbreedingbirdatlas1&v=1.0

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Vermont Center for Ecostudies. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: eba1cb5d-eafe-4828-99c4-e9f53f14d7bc.  Vermont Center for Ecostudies publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by U.S. Geological Survey.

Keywords

Occurrence; Observation

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Rosalind Renfrew
Ornithologist
Vermont Center for Ecostudies PO Box 420 05055 Norwich Vermont US
Kent McFarland
conservation biologist
Vermont Center for Ecostudies PO Box 420 05055 Norwich Vermont US 802-649-1431

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Kent McFarland
conservation biologist
Vermont Center for Ecostudies PO Box 420 05055 Norwich Vermont US 802-649-1431

Who filled in the metadata:

Kent McFarland
conservation biologist
Vermont Center for Ecostudies PO Box 420 05055 Norwich Vermont US 802-649-1431

Who else was associated with the resource:

User
Kent McFarland
conservation biologist
Vermont Center for Ecostudies PO Box 420 05055 Norwich Vermont US 802-649-1431

Geographic Coverage

State of Vermont, United States

Bounding Coordinates South West [42.715, -73.455], North East [45.058, -71.389]

Taxonomic Coverage

No Description available

Class  Aves (birds)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1976-01-01 / 1981-12-31

Project Data

http://val.vtecostudies.org/

Title Vermont Atlas of Life
Identifier VAL
Study Area Description State of Vermont, USA

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Kent McFarland

Sampling Methods

In the first atlas (1976-1981), one block in each quadrangle in Vermont was randomly selected to be surveyed—these were called “priority blocks.” A total of 179 blocks were selected to be surveyed in the first atlas. Field work for the first atlas was carried out during 1976 - 1981. Each block was surveyed for 1 to 5 years, depending on the amount of effort expended on a block in a given year. Blocks without a dedicated volunteer were block-busted; that is, surveyed intensively during a short period, usually by at least two people per block. Blockbusting was carried out by both volunteers and paid field technicians. In addition to observations collected during formal atlasing efforts, incidental observations were recorded and were especially encouraged for rare species in non-priority and priority blocks. The protocol for surveying a block followed that of other atlases and was in accordance with the general principles outlined in the North American Atlas Committee (NORAC) guidelines. Atlasers conducted extensive area searches of each block in all of the habitats represented. They recorded all bird species detected within safe dates and any breeding evidence observed for each bird species. Evidence of breeding was categorized as “Confirmed”, “Probable”, or “Possible”. A minimum number of species and confirmations were required to declare a block “completed.” This approach ensures a standard, minimum amount of coverage and survey effort on blocks. Observers were required to survey in as many different habitat types as possible on the block. Using a minimum number of species, while imprecise, is preferable to using the amount of time spent on a block as a measure of effort. The latter is problematic because the amount of time needed to survey a block adequately can vary depending on factors such as topography, habitat complexity and diversity, accessibility of habitats, times periods when surveying occurs, and especially skill level and motivation of the observer. In the first atlas, surveying on a block was considered complete when at least 75 percent of the species expected to occur in the block were found, and evidence of nesting was confirmed for at least half of those species. Based on an assumption that the average block in Vermont harbors 100 breeding bird species, a block was considered complete when at least 75 species had been documented, and at least 35 of those species were confirmed breeding. The 75/35 rule could not be strictly applied to blocks with relatively homogenous habitat. Forested blocks with few openings or wetlands, for example, do not have a diversity of habitats adequate to support 100 breeding bird species. Most of these blocks were located in the Northeastern Highlands biophysical region and in blocks in the Green Mountains, where blocks were extensively forested and supported few other habitat types.

Study Extent State of Vermont, United States

Method step description:

  1. See Sampling description.
  2. Because no database existed for the atlas, custom software was created by Ted Murin, atlas volunteer, to read scans of the species maps on pages 31-407 of the Atlas of Breeding Birds of Vermont (Laughlin, Sarah B. and Douglas P. Kibbe, eds. 1985. The Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Vermont. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. 456pp. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11449779.v1). Original paper forms from the atlas are stored at the Vermont Center for Ecostudies. This file was used to created a DwC file for the project.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Laughlin, Sarah B. and Douglas P. Kibbe, eds. 1985. The Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Vermont. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. 456pp. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11449779.v1
  2. Breeding Bird Atlas Explorer (online resource). 2020. U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. <Date of access>. http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bba. Data extracted from: Laughlin, Sarah B. and Douglas P. Kibbe, eds. 1985. The Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Vermont. Hanover, IN: University Press of New England. 456pp. https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bba/index.cfm?fa=explore.ProjectHome&BBA_ID=VT1976

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers http://ipt.vtecostudies.org/ipt-2.3.5/resource?r=vtbreedingbirdatlas1